"Identity and ideology fuel tensions on different continents. Both in Europe and in the wider world, the model of an open society is being questioned and other concepts put forward. In the Middle East, identity politics makes for an explosive mix – from the deeply entrenched Israeli-Palestinian conflict to the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which is aggravating sectarianism across the region. " - - - - - "But the biggest challenge is reminding ourselves that stability is no substitute for sustainability and that the root causes of resentment – from repression and deprivation to the ‘old’ Israeli-Palestinian conflict – have deepened across the region. We need to devise policies that, without preaching, support human dignity, social inclusiveness, political responsiveness, educational modernisation and the rule of law across the region. In this respect, devising tailor-made policies in the fields of economic development, social protection and youth inclusion, as well as political accountability, justice and security is key. Equally important is to encourage inclusive and rules-bound reconciliation in old and new conflicts embedded within a new regional security architecture in the wider Middle Eastern space. "